:: Volume 17, Issue 3 (Autumn 2022) ::
Iranian J Nutr Sci Food Technol 2022, 17(3): 57-66 Back to browse issues page
Effects of Wheat Bran (Unprocessed and Hydrothermal) and Replacement Level on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Kashk-e-Zard
S Khavari , MA Najafi * , MA Miri , M Tavakoli , T Hadadi
Associate Professor, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran , najafi413@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (807 Views)
Background and Objectives: Fermented foods include a long history in human nutrition. Kashk-e-Zard is a fermented product based on cereals and yogurt. The aim of this study was to assess effects of replacing unprocessed and hydrothermal wheat bran on the improvement of nutritional and sensory characteristics of Kashk-e-Zard.
 Materials & Methods: In this study, effects of wheat bran types (unprocessed and hydrothermal) and replacement levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) on pH, acidity, protein, digestible protein, phytic acid, zinc, zinc bioavailability, total phenol, antioxidant properties (DPPH) and overall acceptance of Kashk-e-Zard samples were assessed.
Results: All the highlighted parameters were affected by the types and levels of bran replacement (p < 0.05). Addition of wheat bran increased the total fiber and improved the absorption capacity of zinc at all replacement levels, compared to the control sample (p < 0.05). Increasing unprocessed bran replacement increased hydrothermal decreased the protein contents (p < 0.05). Furthermore, addition of hydrothermal bran improved protein digestibility (p <0.05).
Conclusion: Based on the indicators of protein content, protein digestibility, zinc bioavailability, fiber content and overall acceptance of the samples, substitution of hydrothermal wheat bran at the level of 10% is recommended to improve the nutritional Characteristics of Kashk-e-Zard.
Keywords: Antioxidant, Fiber, Protein digestibility, Kashk-e-Zard
Full-Text [PDF 578 kb]   (208 Downloads)    
Article type: Research | Subject: Food Science
Received: 2022/03/16 | Accepted: 2022/08/9 | Published: 2022/10/8
1. Bilgicli N, Elgun A, Herken EN, Turker S, Ertas N, Ibanoglu S. Effect of wheat germ/bran addition on the chemical, nutritional and sensory quality of tarhana, a fermented wheat flour-yoghurt product. J Food Eng. 2006; 77: 680-686. [DOI:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.07.030]
2. Hosseini F, Ansari S. Effect of modified tapioca starch on the physicochemical and sensory properties of liquid kashk. J Food Sci Technol. 2019; 56: 5374-5385. [DOI:10.1007/s13197-019-04008-w]
3. Ertas N. Effect of backer's yeast addition on some properties and phytic acid content of tarhana prepared with different cereal and legume products. Food and Health. 2018; 4: 9-18. [DOI:10.3153/JFHS18002]
4. Tsisaryk O, Slyvka І. Musiy L, Screening of technological properties of natural strains of lactic acid bacteria. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. 2017; 19: 88-92. [DOI:10.15421/nvlvet8018]
5. Slavin J. Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits. Nutrients. 2013; 5: 1417-1435. [DOI:10.3390/nu5041417]
6. Nagovska V, Hachak Y, Gutyj B, Bilyk O, Slyvka N. Influence of wheat bran on quality indicators of a sour milk beverage. Technology and equipment of food production. 2018; 94: 1-11. [DOI:10.15587/1729-4061.2018.140093]
7. Rezaei S, Najafi MA, Haddadi T. Effect of fermentation process, wheat bran size and replacement level on some characteristics of wheat bran, dough, and high-fiber Tafton bread. J Cereal Sci. 2019; 85: 56-61. [DOI:10.1016/j.jcs.2018.11.019]
8. Preuckler M, Siebenhandl-Ehn S, Apprich S, Höltinger S, Haas S, Kneifela W. Wheat-bran based biorefinery: composition of wheat bran and strategies of functionalization. LWT- Food Sci Techn. 2014; 56: 211-221. [DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2013.12.004]
9. Coda R, Rizzello CG, Curiel JA, Poutanen K, Katina K. Effect of bioprocessing and particle size on the nutritional properties of wheat bran fractions. Innov.Food Science Emerg. 2014; 25: 19-27. [DOI:10.1016/j.ifset.2013.11.012]
10. Ruiz HA, Rodríguez-Jasso RM, Fernandes BD, Vicente AA, Teixeira JA. Hydrothermal processing, as an alternative for upgrading agriculture residues and marine biomass according to the biorefinery concept: A review. Rev. Renew Sust Energ Rev. 2013; 21: 35-51. [DOI:10.1016/j.rser.2012.11.069]
11. Ozkaya B, Turksoy S, Ozkaya H, Duman B. Dephytinization of wheat and rice brans by hydrothermal autoclaving process and the evaluation of consequences for dietary fiber content, antioxidant activity and phenolics. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol. 2017; 39: 209 - 215. [DOI:10.1016/j.ifset.2016.11.012]
12. AOAC, Offical methods of analysis: revision 1 (17th Ed). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Washington, DC. 2002.
13. Ahmed MARH, Mustafa AI, Hussan HAR, Elfaki AE. Proximate Analysis, Protein and Starch Digestibility, Specific Volume, and Sensory Evaluation of (Gluten-Free) Tin Bread. Open Access Library Journal. 2016; 3:6, 1-8. [DOI:10.4236/oalib.1102698]
14. Apak R, Guclu K, Ozyürek M, Celik SE. Mechanism of antioxidant capacity assays and the CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay. Microchimica Acta. 2008; 160: 413-9. [DOI:10.1007/s00604-007-0777-0]
15. Isik F, Yapar A. Effect of tomato seed supplementation on chemical and nutritional properties of tarhana. Food Measure. 2017; 11: 667-674. [DOI:10.1007/s11694-016-9436-7]
16. Hsu CL, Chen W, Weng YM, Tseng CY. Chemical composition, physical properties, and antioxidant activities of yam flours as affected by different drying methods. Food Chem. 2003; 83: 85-89. [DOI:10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00053-0]
17. Shahri. KM, Najafi MA, Ata-Saleh I. The influence of alone and starter culture combinations Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PTCC5052) and Lactobacillus Plantarum (PTCC1058), fermentation time and temperature on phytic acid content of Wheat bran. Innovative food technology. 2017; 4: 33-41 [in Persian].
18. Demirci AS, Palabiyik I, Ozalip S, Sive GT. Effect of using kefir in the formulation of traditional Tarhana. Food Sci Technol. 2018; 39: 1-7. [DOI:10.1590/fst.29817]
19. Yazdi TF, Vasiee AR, Alizadeh BB, Mortazavi SA. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from yellow zabol kashk using 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis. Iranian journal of food science and technology. 2017; 13: 25-36 [in Persian].
20. Abedi E, Hashemi MSB. Lactic acid production - producing microorganisms and substrates sources-state of art. Heliyon. 2020; 6: 1-32. [DOI:10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04974]
21. Merali Z, Collins SRA, Elliston A, Wilson DR, Kasper A, Waldron KW. Characterization of cell wall components of wheat bran following hydrothermal pretreatment and fractionation Biotechnology for Biofuels. 2015; 8: 1-13. [DOI:10.1186/s13068-015-0207-1]
22. Liang J, Han, BZ, Nout MJR, Hamer RJ. Effect of soaking and phytase treatment on phytic acid, calcium, iron and zinc in rice fractions. Food Chemestry. 2009; 115:789-794. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.12.051]
23. Goodarzi BF, Birger Ss, Heinrich GR, Jurgen Z. Review article The effects of hydrothermal processing on feed hygiene, nutrient availability, intestinal microbiota and morphology in poultry-A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2016; 220: 187-215. [DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.07.010]
24. Majzoobi M, Pashangeh S, Farahnaky M, Hadi Eskandari M, Jamalian J. Effect of particle size reduction, hydrothermal and fermentation treatments on phytic acid content and some physicochemical properties of wheat bran. J Food Sci Technol. 2014; 51:2755-2761. [DOI:10.1007/s13197-012-0802-0]
25. Valiolahi M, Najafi MA, Eskandani MA, Rahnama M. Effects of organic acid alone and in combination with H2O2 and NaCl on Escherichia coli O157:H7: An evaluation of antioxidant retention and overall acceptability in Basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum). Int J Food Microbiol. 2019; 292: 56-63. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2018.12.010]
26. Onipe OO, Ramashia SE, Jideani AIO. Review wheat bran modifications for enhanced nutrition and functionality in selected food products. Molecules. 2021; 26: 1-16. [DOI:10.3390/molecules26133918]
27. Yin X, Chen K, Cheng H, Chen X, Feng S, Song Y. Liang L. Chemical Stability of Ascorbic Acid Integrated into Commercial Products: A Review on Bioactivity and Delivery Technology. Antioxidants 2022. 11:1 - 20. [DOI:10.3390/antiox11010153]
28. Zhao HM, Guo XN, Zhu KX. Impact of solid-state fermentation on nutritional, physical and flavour properties of wheat bran. Food Chem. 2017; 217, 28-36. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.062]
29. Goodarzi BF, Mader A, Knorr F, Ruhnke I, Rohe I, Hafeez A, Manner K, Zentek Z. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers. Poult Sci. 2104; 93; 5: 1159-1171. [DOI:10.3382/ps.2013-03563]
30. Vries DS, Pustjens A, Kabel M, Kwakkel R, Gerrits W. Effects of processing technologies and pectolytic enzymes on degradability of nonstarchpolysaccharides from rapeseed meal in broilers. Poult Sci. 2014; 93, 589-598. [DOI:10.3382/ps.2013-03476]
31. Najafi MA, Rezaei K, Safari M, Razavi SH. Use of sourdough to reduce phytic acid and improve zinc bioavailability of a traditional flat bread (sangak) from Iran. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2012; 21: 51-57. [DOI:10.1007/s10068-012-0007-3]
32. Brouns F, Hemery Y, Price R, Anson NM. 2012. Wheat aleurone: separation, composition, health aspects, and potential food use. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2012; 52: 553-568. [DOI:10.1080/10408398.2011.589540]
33. Tsafrakidou P, Michaelidou AM, Biliaderis CG. Fermented Cereal-based Products: Nutritional Aspects, Possible Impact on Gut Microbiota and Health Implications. Foods. 2020; 9: 1-24. [DOI:10.3390/foods9060734]
34. Khrisanapant P, Leong SY, Kebede B, Oey I. Effects of Hydrothermal Processing Duration on the Texture, Starch and Protein In Vitro Digestibility of Cowpeas, Chickpeas and Kidney Beans. Foods. 2021. 6: 1-22. [DOI:10.3390/foods10061415]
35. Najafi MA, Rezaei K, Safari M, Razavi SH. Effects of Several Starter Cultures on the Anti-mold Activity and Sensory Attributes of a Traditional Flat Bread (Sangak) from Iran. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2012b; 21: 113-121. [DOI:10.1007/s10068-012-0014-4]

XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 17, Issue 3 (Autumn 2022) Back to browse issues page