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:: Volume 7, Issue 3 (Autumn 2012 2012) ::
2012, 7(3): 51-60 Back to browse issues page
The effect of flour extration rate, amount of asparaginase enzyme, and baking temperature and time on acrylamide formation in Sangak bread
H Vahedi , MH Azizi * , F Kobarfard , M Barzegar , Z Hamidi Esfahani
Abstract:   (7658 Views)
Background and Objective: Acrylamide is a carcinogen element which is formed at temperatures higher than 120C in the foods rich in carbohydrates, such as Sangak bread. Materials and Methods: At first, a series of confirmed mechanisms effective on the formation of acrylamide was determined: Free asparagine, glucose, fructose, maltose, and sucrose sugars in two kinds of dough made from two kinds of flour with the extraction rate of %82 and %93. Then, the effect of flour extration rate, enzyme asparaginase, temperature and time needed for baking, and interactions of effectual factors was studied on the formation of acrylamide in Sangak bread. The amount of acrylamide was determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The data analysis was performed using Spss16, Minitab15, and Factorial test. Results: A significant differenc was seen between average sugars other than sucrose in the two kinds of flour. Also, average acrylamid formed by principal factors affecting (flour extration rate, asparaginase enzyme, baking time and temperature) and reciprocal impact of the 2, 3, 4 factors showed a significant difference (p< 0/001). The maximum of acrylamide formation from 72 treatments caused by the reciprocal impacts of the four factors was seen at the temperature of 352oC, baking time of 10 minutes, and flour with 93% extraction rate (without enzyme) of 60/30 ( mg/kg) and the minimum of acrylamide formation was observed at the temperature of 241oC, baking time of 5 minutes and the flour with 82% extraction rate (with enzyme) of 13/07 mg/kg Sangak bread. Conclusion: The decrease of free asparagine by asparaginase enzyme indicated that glucose and fructose were the major sources of acrylamide formation in Sangak bread. The rate of acrylamide formation increased with the increase in flour extraction rate. This rate has direct relationship with baking time and temperature. Acrylamide formation can be minimized in the presence of asparaginase enzyme. Training the bakers not to toast the bread will result in the production of healthy Sangak bread Keywords: Free asparagine, Acrylamide, Enzyme asparaginase, Sangak bread, LC/MS/MS
Keywords: Free asparagine, Acrylamide, Enzyme asparaginase, Sangak bread, LC/MS/MS
Full-Text [PDF 282 kb]   (1872 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Food Science
Received: 2012/10/9
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Vahedi H, Azizi M, Kobarfard F, Barzegar M, Hamidi Esfahani Z. The effect of flour extration rate, amount of asparaginase enzyme, and baking temperature and time on acrylamide formation in Sangak bread. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology. 2012; 7 (3) :51-60
URL: http://nsft.sbmu.ac.ir/article-1-858-en.html


Volume 7, Issue 3 (Autumn 2012 2012) Back to browse issues page
Iranian Journal of  Nutrition Sciences & Food  Technology
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