[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 14, Issue 4 (Winter 2020) ::
2020, 14(4): 113-122 Back to browse issues page
Assessment of Salt (Sodium Chloride) Content in Traditional and Industrial Breads in Tehran-2016
Z Hadian * , E Feyzollahi, Z Honarvar, R Komeili-fonood, K Khosravi Darani , V Mofid , H Zand-Rajabi, Gh Bahramian, M Salehi, Gh Mortezaee, H Rasekhi
Abstract:   (1128 Views)

Background and Objectives: Nowadays, reducing sodium intake is one of the most important goals of global and national programs for decreasing of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease and salt is the most important source of sodium intake in the diet. Bread has remained one of the staple food in many cultures and societies in different parts of the world. Despite key roles of breads in Iranian food consumption patterns, a little information is available on salt (sodium chloride) intake in traditional and industrial breads. The aim of the current study was to determine the salt content in traditional, volume and semi-volume breads in Tehran, Iran in 2016.

 Materials & Methods: In this study, 151 samples including traditional and industrial breads were collected randomly from various bakeries and markets of Tehran. Salt content (sodium chloride) in traditional (Sangak, Barbari, Taftoun and Lavash) and industrial (Volume and semi-volume) breads was investigated according to Volhard method of National Standard.

Results: The mean salt in traditional breads of sangak, barbari, taftoun and lavash included 0.41±0.37, 1.43±0.40, 1.07±0.31 and 1.14±0.45 gr/100 g, respectively. This value for volume and semi-volume breads included 1.39 g/100 ±0.58. Nearly 93 %, 21%, 38 % and 43% of the salt content of Sangak, Barbari, Lavash and Taftoon respectively included in the national salt limit were found to be compliant.

Conclusion: Considering the per capita intake of different types of bread in Tehran, the salt intake of Sangak, Lavash, Berberi, Taftoon and Volume and semi-volume breads were 0.13, 0.54, 0.56, 0.36 and 0.12 g/day respectively.
Keywords: Salt, Sodium chloride, Bread, Iran, Dietary intake


Keywords: Salt, Sodium chloride, Bread, Iran, Dietary intake
Full-Text [PDF 509 kb]   (688 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Food Science
Received: 2018/04/15 | Accepted: 2018/07/26 | Published: 2020/01/11
1. Fallah Z, Qorbani M, Motlagh ME, Heshmat R, Ardalan G, Kelishadi R. Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study. International journal of preventive medicine. 2014 Mar; 5(Suppl 1):S57.
2. Nelson F, Nyarko K, Binka F. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases for New Patients Reporting to Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Ghana medical journal. 2015;49(1):12-8. [DOI:10.4314/gmj.v49i1.3]
3. Organization WH. WHO, Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010, WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. ISBN 978-92-4-156422-9, 2011.
4. Nehir El S, Simsek S. Food technological applications for optimal nutrition: an overview of opportunities for the food industry. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2012;11(1):2-12. [DOI:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2011.00167.x]
5. Cobb LK, Appel LJ, Anderson CA. Strategies to reduce dietary sodium intake. Current treatment options in cardiovascular medicine. 2012;14(4):425-34. [DOI:10.1007/s11936-012-0182-9]
6. Nwanguma B, Okorie C. Salt (sodium chloride) content of retail samples of Nigerian white bread: implications for the daily salt intake of normotensive and hypertensive adults. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 2013;26(5):488-93. [DOI:10.1111/jhn.12038]
7. Kloss L, Meyer JD, Graeve L, Vetter W. Sodium intake and its reduction by food reformulation in the European :union:-A review. NFS Journal. 2015;1:9-19. [DOI:10.1016/j.nfs.2015.03.001]
8. Israr T, Rakha A, Sohail M, Rashid S, Shehzad A. Salt reduction in baked products: Strategies and constraints. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2016;51:98-105. [DOI:10.1016/j.tifs.2016.03.002]
9. Health UDo, Services H. 2015-2020 dietary guidelines for Americans. Washington (DC): USDA. 2015.
10. WHo, J. and World Health Organization. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a joint WH. 2003.
11. Campbell NR, Lackland DT, Niebylski ML. High blood pressure: why prevention and control are urgent and important-a 2014 fact sheet from the World Hypertension League and the International Society of Hypertension. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2014;16(8):551-3. [DOI:10.1111/jch.12372]
12. Aghaei Meybodi HR, Khashayar P, Rezai Homami M, Heshmat R, Larijani B. Prevalence of hypertension in an Iranian population. Renal failure. 2014;36(1):87-91. [DOI:10.3109/0886022X.2013.832315]
13. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. National Standard No. 2628. Traditional Breads Specifications and Test Methods. 2016.
14. Strazzullo P. World Action on salt and health (WASH). 2010.
15. Organization WH. A comprehensive global monitoring framework including indicators and a set of voluntary global targets for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2012.
16. Rahmani M, Koohkan A, Allahverdian S, Hedayati M. Comparison of dietary iodine intake and Urinary excretion in urban and rural Households of Ilam in 2000. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2000;2(1):31-7.
17. Azizi F, Rahmani M, Allahverdian S, Hedayati M. Effects of salted food consumption on urinary iodine and thyroid function tests in two provinces in the Islamic Republic of Iran. 2001.
18. Sadeghzadeh V, Ghasemi I, Kelachayeh SSR, Naserian J. Effects of a lifestyle-change program on cardiac risk factors after angioplasty. I Res J Appl Basic Sci. 2013;1:234-8.
19. Motlagh Z, Mazloomy S, Mozaffari Khosravi H, Morowatisharifabad M, Askarshahi M. Salt Intake Among Women Refer to Medical Health Centers, Yazd, Iran, 2011. The Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences. 2011; (4) 19:550-60.
20. Mirnalini Jr K, Zalilah M, Safiah M, Tahir A, Siti HM, Siti RD, et al. Energy and Nutrient Intakes: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS). Malaysian journal of nutrition. 2008;14(1):1-24.
21. Radhika G, Sathya R, Sudha V, Ganesan A, Mohan V. Dietary salt intake and hypertension in an urban south Indian population-[CURES-53]. Journal of Association of Physicians of India. 2007;55(6):405-11.
22. Pavan L, Casiglia E, Pauletto P, Batista SL, Ginocchio G, Kwankam MM, et al. Blood pressure, serum cholesterol and nutritional state in Tanzania and in the Amazon: comparison with an Italian population. Journal of hypertension. 1997;15(10):1083-90. [DOI:10.1097/00004872-199715100-00006]
23. Khosravi A, Pourheidar B, Roohafza H, Moezzi M, Mousavi M, Hajiannejad A, et al. Evaluating factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension: Isfahan cohort study, Iran. ARYA atherosclerosis. 2014;10(6):311.
24. Campbell NR, Lackland DT, Lisheng L, Zhang XH, Nilsson PM, Redburn KA, et al. The World Hypertension League challenges hypertension and cardiovascular organizations to develop strategic plans for the prevention and control of hypertension. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2015;17(5):325-7. [DOI:10.1111/jch.12557]
25. Karizaki VM. Ethnic and traditional Iranian breads: different types, and historical and cultural aspects. Journal of Ethnic Foods. 2017;4(1):8-14. [DOI:10.1016/j.jef.2017.01.002]
26. Abdullahi M. et al. Designing a system for studying and documenting the actual percentage of per capita consumption of bread. Institute of Nutrition and Food Industry of Iran, Tehran. Nutrition Research Group. Tehran. 2002 [In Farsi].
27. Salehi F. et al. A desirable food basket report for the Iranian community of the Ministry of Health, Nutrition Improvement Office and the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute. Lasting thought. 2013 [In Farsi].
28. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. National Iranian Standards No. 2338, Specification and test method for volume and semi volume breads and methods of examination, Third Review: 1999.
29. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Iranian National Standard No. 2705 Cereal and cereal Products-Determination of moisture content. Reference method. 2010.
30. Kimiagar M, etal. National Comprehensive Study on Household Food Consumption Pattern and Nutritional Status IR IRAN, 1991-1995. Tehran: National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Center of Agricultural Economic Studies and Planning, 1996 [In Farsi].
31. Kalantari N, Ghaffarpur M, et al. National Report of "The Comprehensive Study on Household Food Consumption Patterns and Nutritional Status of I.R.Iran, 2001-2003". Nutrition Research Group, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Health, Tehran, I.R. Iran, 2005. [In Farsi].
32. Kalantari N. et al. Study of Food Basket, Nutritional Status and Anthropometry in Households Living in Tehran's. National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Health, Tehran, I.R. Iran, 2008. [In Farsi].
33. He FJ, MacGregor GA. A comprehensive review on salt and health and current experience of worldwide salt reduction programmes. Journal of human hypertension. 2009; 23(6): 363-84. [DOI:10.1038/jhh.2008.144]
34. Cappuccio FP, Capewell S, Lincoln P, McPherson K. Policy options to reduce population salt intake. BMJ: British Medical Journal (Online). 2011; 343. [DOI:10.1136/bmj.d4995]
35. Webster J, Dunford E, Huxley R, Li N, Nowson CA, Neal B. The development of a national salt reduction strategy for Australia. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2009;18(3):303-9.
36. Pietinen P, Valsta LM, Hirvonen T, Sinkko H. Labelling the salt content in foods: a useful tool in reducing sodium intake in Finland. Public health nutrition. 2008;11(04):335-40. [DOI:10.1017/S1368980007000249]
37. Salovaara H. Sensory limitations to replacement of sodium with potassium and magnesium in bread. Cereal Chem. 1982.
38. Bolhuis DP, Temme EH, Koeman FT, Noort MW, Kremer S, Janssen AM. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings. The Journal of nutrition. 2011;141(12):2249-55. [DOI:10.3945/jn.111.141366]
39. Kaur A, Bala R, Singh B, Rehal J. Effect of replacement of sodium chloride with mineral salts on rheological characteristics of wheat flour. American Journal of Food Technology. 2011; (8);674-84. [DOI:10.3923/ajft.2011.674.684]
40. Bidlas E, Lambert RJ. Comparing the antimicrobial effectiveness of NaCl and KCl with a view to salt/sodium replacement. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008;124(1):98-102. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.02.031]
41. Charlton KE, MacGregor E, Vorster NH, Levitt NS, Steyn K. Partial replacement of NaCl can be achieved with potassium, magnesium and calcium salts in brown bread. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2007;58(7):508-21. [DOI:10.1080/09637480701331148]
42. TAKANO H, KONDOU R. Sodium gluconate and potassium gluconate as substitutes for sodium chloride in breadmaking. Food Sci Technol Res. 2002;8(1):75-9. [DOI:10.3136/fstr.8.75]
43. Noort MW, Bult JH, Stieger M, Hamer RJ. Saltiness enhancement in bread by inhomogeneous spatial distribution of sodium chloride. Journal of Cereal Science. 2010;52(3):378-86. [DOI:10.1016/j.jcs.2010.06.018]
44. Noort MW, Bult JH, Stieger M. Saltiness enhancement by taste contrast in bread prepared with encapsulated salt. Journal of Cereal Science. 2012;55(2):218-25. [DOI:10.1016/j.jcs.2011.11.012]
45. Miller RA, Jeong J. Sodium reduction in bread using low-sodium sea salt. Cereal Chem. 2014;91(1):41-4. [DOI:10.1094/CCHEM-05-13-0089-R]
Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Hadian Z, Feyzollahi E, Honarvar Z, Komeili-fonood R, Khosravi Darani K, Mofid V, et al . Assessment of Salt (Sodium Chloride) Content in Traditional and Industrial Breads in Tehran-2016. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology. 2020; 14 (4) :113-122
URL: http://nsft.sbmu.ac.ir/article-1-2457-en.html

Volume 14, Issue 4 (Winter 2020) Back to browse issues page
Iranian Journal of  Nutrition Sciences & Food  Technology
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4227