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:: Volume 18, Issue 3 (Autumn 2023) ::
Iranian J Nutr Sci Food Technol 2023, 18(3): 39-49 Back to browse issues page
Comparing Energy and Nutrients of the usual household Food Baskets using Climatic Regions Classification, 2015–2018, and Household Incomes and Expenditure Data
F Aghaalikhani , H Eini-Zinab , R Sobhani , A Rezazadeh *
Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Industry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , arezoo.rezazadeh@gmail.com
Abstract:   (591 Views)
Background and Objectives: It is necessary to investigate nutritional statuses of the people and how household consume foods in the country provide evidence and use them for education, promotion of food literacy and nutritional policies. The objective of this study was to assess and compare energy and nutrient intakes from the usual household food baskets based on climatic regions classification, 2015–2018.
Materials and Methods: In this repeated cross-sectional study, data of the household`s income and expenditure survey (HIES) of 128,716 Iranian households, 2015–2018, were used. Based on the division of Iran's provinces into 11 climatic regions in a study on the micronutrient status of Iran (National Integrated Micronutrient Survey 2012, NIMS-2), national data of the household income expenditure survey in 2015–2018 were separated. To estimate quantities of intake from the household usual baskets, the household intake quantity for each food item was converted to the individual level using adult male equivalent (AME) index. Using Nutritionist 4 software and coding in R program, quantities of energy intakes and micronutrients of iron, calcium, riboflavin and vitamin A were calculated. One-way analysis of variance and post-hoc tests were used to compare energy intakes and nutrients received from the usual household food baskets, 2015–2018.
Result: In the four studied years, the highest average intake of energy (3127.575 kcal) and iron (27.453 mg) belonged to the Climatic Region 10 (Ilam, Kurdistan, Kermanshah, Lorestan and Hamedan), the highest average calcium (1070.82 mg) and riboflavin (2.275 mg) belonged to the Climatic Region 2 (West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan and Ardabil) and the highest average of vitamin A intake (624.347 µg) belonged to the Climatic Region 9 (Zanjan, Qazvin, Qom and Markazi). The lowest average intake of all items except vitamin A in the four years of the study was linked to the Climatic Region 11 (Fars, Kerman, Kohkilouyeh and Boyer Ahmad) and the lowest average intake of vitamin A belonged to the Climatic Region 5 (Sistan Baluchistan and South Khorasan). Except for energy consumption, iron, calcium and riboflavin in the Climatic Region 7 (Bushehr, Hormozgan and Khuzestan) and calcium and riboflavin in the Climatic Region 8 (Tehran and Alborz), energy consumption and assessed micronutrients decreased in all climatic regions in 2018, compared to 2015. Regarding consumption of micronutrients, the average consumption of iron in all climatic regions in the four years of the study was higher than the recommended RDA. For calcium, intake was more than the RDA recommendation only in the Climatic Region 2. The average consumption of riboflavin was higher than the RDA recommendation in all the climatic regions. Regarding vitamin A, the average consumption in the four years of the study was lower than the RDA recommendation in all the climatic regions.
Conclusion: Overall, the findings showed that energy and micronutrient intakes from the usual household food baskets generally decreased over the years of the study. This situation was more significant in the Climatic Region 11 with significant droughts and in the Climatic Region 5 as a dry climatic region with low socioeconomic statuses. In addition, the average intakes of calcium and vitamin A in all climatic regions (except Climatic Region 2 regarding calcium) were lower than the recommended RDA. These findings emphasize the necessity of further planning for the implementation of policies focusing on food supports in drought-affected and deprived climatic regions. 
Keywords: Energy, Nutrients, Usual food basket, Cost-income, Climatic region
Full-Text [PDF 678 kb]   (160 Downloads)    
Article type: Research | Subject: nutrition
Received: 2023/06/23 | Accepted: 2023/08/16 | Published: 2023/10/7
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aghaalikhani F, Eini-Zinab H, Sobhani R, Rezazadeh A. Comparing Energy and Nutrients of the usual household Food Baskets using Climatic Regions Classification, 2015–2018, and Household Incomes and Expenditure Data. Iranian J Nutr Sci Food Technol 2023; 18 (3) :39-49
URL: http://nsft.sbmu.ac.ir/article-1-3694-en.html


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Volume 18, Issue 3 (Autumn 2023) Back to browse issues page
Iranian Journal of  Nutrition Sciences and Food  Technology
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