[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
this is a test
Main Menu
Home::
Journal Information::
Articles archive::
For Authors::
Subscription::
Contact us::
Site Facilities::
Webmail::
Ethical Consideration::
::
Search in website

Advanced Search
..
Receive site information
Enter your Email in the following box to receive the site news and information.
..
:: Volume 18, Issue 1 (Spring 2023) ::
Iranian J Nutr Sci Food Technol 2023, 18(1): 33-54 Back to browse issues page
Modification and Development of Protocols for the Content Analysis of the Food Advertisements in Mass Media and School Surroundings in Iran
M Amini , M Babashahi * , D Ghodsi , Sh Faghih , A Sabouri
Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran , m.babashahi21@gmail.com
Abstract:   (559 Views)
Background and Objectives: Considering important roles of advertisement in food choices, especially for children and adolescents, valid tools are needed to assess changes in the content of advertisements. The purpose of the present study was to prepare standard protocols for assessing the content of food advertisements of televisions, radios, billboards and school surroundings in Iran.
Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out by adjusting and localizing International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) protocol in five stages. After translating protocols of each section and using opinions and suggestions of experts about the protocols, variables of each protocol were reviewed, revised and sometimes changed. Then, face and content validities of all four protocols were assessed using experts' opinions. Data from two studies (content analysis of media food advertisements and surrounding environment of Shiraz schools in 2020 and 2021, respectively) were coded using modified protocols. Then, reliability of the protocols was checked by assessing the coefficient of agreements between the researchers.
Results: The final items for assessing the content of food advertisements in three mass media and school surroundings were achieved in the form of four separate protocols. Reliabilities for all four protocols were acceptable (for the media and school surroundings more than 90 and 89%, respectively).
Conclusion: In the current study, several standard protocols for assessing the content of food advertisements in mass media and school surroundings have been presented for the first time. The protocols can be provided to produce reliable, uniform and usable information at the national and international levels.
 
Keywords: INFORMAS, Protocol, Food marketing, Advertisement, School surroundings
Full-Text [PDF 746 kb]   (167 Downloads)    
Article type: Research | Subject: nutrition
Received: 2022/12/12 | Accepted: 2023/01/16 | Published: 2023/04/15
References
1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Influencing Food Environments for Healthy Diets. FAO: Rome Italy, 2016. Available online: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i6491e.pdf (accessed on 8 February 2021).
2. Babashahi M, Omidvar N, Joulaei H, Zargaraan A, Zayeri F, Veisi E, et al. Scrutinize of healthy school canteen policy in Iran's primary schools: a mixed method study. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):1-16. [DOI:10.1186/s12889-021-11587-x]
3. Omidvar N, Babashahi M, Abdollahi Z, Al-Jawaldeh A. Enabling food environment in kindergartens and schools in Iran for promoting healthy diet: Is it on the right track? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(8):4114. [DOI:10.3390/ijerph18084114]
4. Babashahi M, Omidvar N, Joulaei H, Zargaraan A, Veisi E, Kelishadi R. Food products with the child-targeted packaging in food stores around primary schools in Tehran, Iran. Journal of Prevention. 2022:1-15. [DOI:10.1007/s10935-022-00679-y]
5. Babashahi M, Omidvar N, Yazdizadeh B, Heidari-Beni M, Joulaei H, Narmcheshm S, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the most common processed/ultra-processed foods consumed by Iranian children. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2021;27(9):918-30. [DOI:10.26719/emhj.21.032]
6. Talukdar D, Seenivasan S, Cameron AJ, Sacks G. The association between national income and adult obesity prevalence: Empirical insights into temporal patterns and moderators of the association using 40 years of data across 147 countries. PloS one. 2020;15(5):e0232236. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0232236]
7. Swinburn B, Sacks G, Vandevijvere S, Kumanyika S, Lobstein T, Neal B, et al. INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support): overview and key principles. Obesity reviews. 2013;14:1-12. [DOI:10.1111/obr.12087]
8. International Network for Food and Obesity/NCD Research Monitoring and Action Support. International Network for Food and Obesity/NCD Research, Monitoring and Action Support [26/02/2013]. Available from: www.informas.org.
9. Osei-Assibey G, Dick S, Macdiarmid J, Semple S, Reilly JJ, Ellaway A, et al. The influence of the food environment on overweight and obesity in young children: a systematic review. BMJ open. 2012;2(6). [DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001538]
10. Brennan LK, Brownson RC, Orleans CT. Childhood obesity policy research and practice: evidence for policy and environmental strategies. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2014;46(1):e1-e16. [DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.08.022]
11. World Health Organization. Set of Recommendations on the Marketing of Foods and Non-alcoholic Beverages to Children. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2010; Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44416/9789241500210_eng.pdf (accessed January 2021).
12. Story M, French S. Food advertising and marketing directed at children and adolescents in the US. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2004;1(1):3. [DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-1-3]
13. Turner C, Kadiyala S, Aggarwal A, Coates J, Drewnowski A, Hawkes C, et al. Concepts and Methods for Food Environment Research in Low and Middle Income Countries. London: Agriculture, Nutrition and Health Academy Food Environments Working Group. 2017.
14. Oommen VG, Anderson PJ. Policies on restriction of food advertising during children's television viewing times: an international perspective. Proceedings Australian College of Health Service Executives 2008 Conference, Going for Gold in Health - Motivation, Effort, Performance Gold Coast, Australia. 2008.
15. Gil JGT, Lopez i Casasnovas G, Mora Corral AJ. Taxation of unhealthy consumption of food and drinks: An updated literature review. Hacienda Publica Espanola. 2013;207(4):117-38. [DOI:10.7866/HPE-RPE.13.4.5]
16. Mansori K, Khateri S, Moradi Y, Khazaei Z, Mirzaei H, Hanis SM, et al. Prevalence of obesity and overweight in Iranian children aged less than 5 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Korean Journal of Pediatrics. 2019;62(6):206. [DOI:10.3345/kjp.2018.07255]
17. Motlagh ME, Qorbani M, Rafiemanzelat A-M, Taheri M, Aminaee T, Shafiee G, et al. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-V Study. Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research. 2018;10(2):76-82. [DOI:10.15171/jcvtr.2018.12]
18. World Health Organization. Report of the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity. 2016; Available from: https://www.who.int/end-childhood-obesity/news/launch-final-report/en/ (accessed February 2021).
19. Omidvar N, Al-Jawaldeh A, Amini M, Babashahi M, Abdollahi Z, Ranjbar M. Food Marketing to Children in Iran: Regulation that Needs Further Regulation. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2021;9(3):722-44. [DOI:10.12944/CRNFSJ.9.3.02]
20. Kelly B. INFORMAS Protocol: Food Promotion Module: Food Marketing-Television Protocol. 2017.
21. Iran's INFORMAS groap. Available from: https://www.informas.org/countries/Iran (accessed January 2023).
22. World Health Organisation. WHO Regional Office for Europe nutrient profile model Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office Europe 2015; Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/data/assets/pdf_file/0005/270716/Nutrient-Profile-Model.pdf?ua=1.
23. Pan American Health Organization. Nutrient Profile Model. Washington DC: PAHO. 2016.
24. Lawshe CA. A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology. 1975;28:563-75. [DOI:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x]
25. Lynn M. Determoning and quantification of content validity. Nursing Research. 1986;35:382- 5. [DOI:10.1097/00006199-198611000-00017]
26. Juniper EF, Guyatt GH, Streiner DL, King DR. Clinical impact versus factor analysis for quality of life questionnaire construction. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 1997;50(3):233-8. [DOI:10.1016/S0895-4356(96)00377-0]
27. Kotz K, Story M. Food advertisements during children's Saturday morning television programming: are they consistent with dietary recommendations? Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1994;94(11):1296-300. [DOI:10.1016/0002-8223(94)92463-5]
28. Mackay S, Molloy J, Vandevijvere S. INFORMAS protocol: outdoor advertising (school zones). 2017. Available from: https://figshare.com/articles/INFORMAS_protocol_Outdoor_advertising_school_zones_/5701102.
29. Setavand Mh, Hajizadeh F, Yaghfoori H. Spatial analysis of Shiraz urban areas in terms of social justice with an emphasis on public services. Journal of Applied researches in Geographical Sciences. 2019;19(52):171-92 [in Persian]. [DOI:10.29252/jgs.19.52.171]
30. World Health Organization, Rayner M, Jewell J, Al Jawaldeh A. Nutrient Profile Model for the Marketing of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region. World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. Cairo, Egypt; 2017. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/255260. Accessed 11 Dec 2022.
31. The Ministry of Health and Medical Education. National standards and examples of the final list of health-threatening goods and actions harmful to health to ban advertising. 2022; Available from: https://rc.majlis.ir/fa/law/show/1748361, accessed 11 Dec 2022.
32. Kelly B, Cretikos M, Rogers K, King L. The commercial food landscape: outdoor food advertising around primary schools in Australia. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health. 2008;32(6):522-8. [DOI:10.1111/j.1753-6405.2008.00303.x]
33. Organization WH. Monitoring Food and Beverage Marketing to Children via Television and the Internet: A Proposed Tool for the WHO European Region. WHO Regional Office for Europe: Copenhagen, Denmark. 2016.
34. Manual for monitoring food marketing to children. London: Consumers International; 2011 (http://www. consumersinternational.org/media/795222/food-manual-english-web.pdf, accessed 25 November 2016).
35. Alfayad K, Murray RL, Britton J, Barker AB. Content analysis of Netflix and Amazon Prime Instant Video original films in the UK for alcohol, tobacco and junk food imagery. Journal of Public Health. 2022;44(2):302-9. [DOI:10.1093/pubmed/fdab022]
36. Fleming-Milici F, Harris JL. Food marketing to children in the United States: can industry voluntarily do the right thing for children's health? Physiology & Behavior. 2020;227:113139. [DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113139]
37. Kelly B, Bosward R, Freeman B. Australian children's exposure to, and engagement with, web-based marketing of food and drink brands: cross-sectional observational study. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2021;23(7):e28144. [DOI:10.2196/28144]
38. Amini M, Ghodsi D, Zargaraan A, Alibeyk S, Hajigholam-Saryazdi M. Violation of food advertising regulations in Iran: A Systematic review. International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2022: In press.
39. Kelly B, Halford JC, Boyland EJ, Chapman K, Bautista-Castaño I, Berg C, et al. Television food advertising to children: a global perspective. American journal of public health. 2010;100(9):1730-6. [DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2009.179267]
40. Kelly B, Hattersley L, King L, Flood V. Persuasive food marketing to children: use of cartoons and competitions in Australian commercial television advertisements. Health Promotion International. 2008;23(4):337-44. [DOI:10.1093/heapro/dan023]
41. Kelly B, Hebden L, King L, Xiao Y, Yu Y, He G, et al. Children's exposure to food advertising on free-to-air television: an Asia-Pacific perspective. Health Promotion International. 2016;31(1):144-52.
42. Kelly B, King L, Jamiyan B, Chimedtseren N, Bold B, Medina VM, et al. Density of outdoor food and beverage advertising around schools in Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia) and Manila (The Philippines) and implications for policy. Critical Public Health. 2015;25(3):280-90. [DOI:10.1080/09581596.2014.940850]
43. Dia OEW, Løvhaug AL, Rukundo PM, Torheim LE. Mapping of outdoor food and beverage advertising around primary and secondary schools in Kampala city, Uganda. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):1-12. [DOI:10.1186/s12889-021-10661-8]
44. Babashahi M. Analysis for policies related to children's food environment (with special reference to industrial foods) in Iran in order to create child-friendly food environments [dissertation]. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology; 2021 [in Persian].
45. Boyland E, Garde A, Jewell J, Tatlow-Golden M. Evaluating implementation of the WHO set of recommendations on the marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children: Progress, challenges and guidance for next steps in the WHO European Region. 2018.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA


XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Amini M, Babashahi M, Ghodsi D, Faghih S, Sabouri A. Modification and Development of Protocols for the Content Analysis of the Food Advertisements in Mass Media and School Surroundings in Iran. Iranian J Nutr Sci Food Technol 2023; 18 (1) :33-54
URL: http://nsft.sbmu.ac.ir/article-1-3602-en.html


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 18, Issue 1 (Spring 2023) Back to browse issues page
Iranian Journal of  Nutrition Sciences and Food  Technology
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.04 seconds with 37 queries by YEKTAWEB 4645